A stumbling block on the forest path, a wrong step on the stairs, an unfavorable movement during exercise - quickly ankles are sprained, ligaments are pulled, muscles are bruised. Even though the injury is not always visible, pain almost always causes it. What you should do after a bruise or sprain is explained in the following article.
Bruises and strains: dull injuries
Injuries that occur without external bleeding and open wounds, referred to the physician as "blunt injuries". They are particularly common in the musculoskeletal system - muscles, tendons, ligaments and bones - as bruising, straining, dislocation, contusion or fracture (the latter two can also occur as an open injury).
Causes of bruises and strains
Bruises and strains can have different causes, as the following definitions show:
- Contusion (Contusion): A bruise caused by blunt force impact, ie a fall, impact, impact or impact. A typical sports injury is the bruising of muscles, ribs and joints. But also abdominal organs, the eyeball or the brain can be affected by a bruise.
- Strain: This refers to damage caused by overstretching or tiny cracks in fibrous structures. If the capsule-band portion of a joint is affected, one speaks of ligament strain, ligament strain or sprain (distortion), otherwise of muscle strain.
- The ligament strain occurs when the natural flexibility limits of the joint are exceeded, usually when "bending over" in the area of the upper ankle ("cracked foot", "bent foot"), but often in the area of knee, elbow, wrist and shoulder. It can not always be distinguished from a torn ligament, although in a ligament strain the stabilizing function of the capsular ligament apparatus is maintained.
- The muscle strain usually arises when the muscles are not warmed up enough and then suddenly becomes tense. Therefore, sports such as squash, short-distance running or football, where abruptly accelerated or stopped, are predestined. Even untrained muscle groups are more susceptible to sudden overstretching. Again, the demarcation to the hamstring is often not easily possible.
- Dislocation (elimination): This joint injury occurs when the bone ends that form a joint shift against each other - usually as a result of pronounced violence such as a fall or a strong pull on the joint. If there is no contact between the ends of the bones, the doctor speaks of luxation, still touching, of subluxation. In the case of a dislocation, the joint capsule and ligaments as well as the cartilages of the articular surfaces usually suffer damage. A relatively common special form is the elbow deflection in toddlers (chaissaignac palsy), which occurs when an adult pulls on the outstretched arm of the child (for example, to hold it when stumbling).